Wednesday, January 23, 2019


Profile analysis of paneer and production opportunities
Wednesday, 02 May, 2018, 08 : 00 AM [IST]
Deshmukh N M1, Sawate A R2, Dongre S A3, Kshirsagar R B4


Studies on different coagulants and their effect on physico-chemical and texture profile analysis of paneer prepared from buffalo milk and its opportunities for paneer production in North India.

Buffalo milk having 6% fat content was heated at 82°C in a cheese vat for 5 min and cooled to 70°C, and was coagulated with citric acid (1% solution), which was added slowly to the milk with continuous stirring until a curd and clear whey separated out.

The mixture was allowed to settle down for 10 min and the whey was drained out through a muslin cloth. During this time, the temperature of whey was maintained above 63°C. The curd was then collected and filled in a hoop (35×28×10 cm) lined with a clean and strong muslin cloth. The hoop had a rectangular frame with the top as well as bottom open. The frame was then rested on a wooden plank and filled with the curd before covering with another plank on the top of the hoop by placing a weight of 45 kg for about 15–20 min.

The pressed block of curd is removed from the hoop and cut into 6–8 pieces and immersed in pasteurised chilled water (4–6°C) for 2–3 h. The chilled pieces of paneer are then removed and placed on a wooden plank for 10–15 min to drain occluded water. Afterwards, these pieces were wrapped in parchment paper, and stored at refrigeration temperature (4±1°C). A schematic approach for the manufacture of paneer is depicted. (Kumar et al., 2011)


Good quality buffalo milk


Standardisation (Fat: SNF 6:9 using buffalo milk)

Heating (820C, 5 min)

Cooling (700C)

Addition of coagulant (2 % Citric acid solution at 700C)

Continuous stirring till clear whey separates out

Settling for 10 min

Draining of whey

Pressing the coagulum after filling in muslin cloth lined hoops

Removal of blocks and cutting into desired size

Immersion of paneer blocks in chilled water (40C)

Draining of water and wiping surface

Packaging and storage at (40C)

Source: (Kumar et al., 2011)

Figure: 1 Flow sheet for the preparation of paneer

Results and Conclusions
The result pertaining to the present investigation during entire period of investigation is summarised as follows: The buffalo milk was standardised to 6 per cent fat and 9 per cent SNF (solids-not-fat). After standardisation of buffalo milk, it was subjected to chemical analysis which showed mark of good quality.

Physicochemical properties of paneer prepared with using different coagulants such as citric acid, tartaric acid, lactic acid and ascorbic acid. They were studied, the results showed variation in physicochemical properties of paneer. Sensory evaluation of paneer prepared from using different coagulants was carried out using 9 point hedonic scale. It is observed that from the results that the sample (T3) i.e., lactic acid paneer obtained the highest sensory score for each sensory attribute.

Texture Profile Analysis (TPA) of paneer prepared with different coagulants was also studied to using TA.XT2 plus micro stable analyser. The results suggested that the hardness was found to be decreased in case of lactic acid paneer (T3) as compared to the other sample. The efforts have been made to study the storage of paneer at different temperatures i.e., room temperature (27±10C) and refrigeration temperature (4±10C).

Paneer is perishable commodity and has very short shelf life. The results revealed that as paneer was prepared with using modern techniques showed significant results. Texture Profile Analysis (TPA) of paneer stored at room temperature (27±10C) and refrigeration temperature (4±10C) was carried out.

The results revealed that the TPA of paneer stored at refrigeration temperature (4±10C) showed better textural characteristics as compared to paneer stored at room temperature (27±10C). Also efforts have been made to study effects of packaging material on paneer stored at different temperature i.e., room temperature (27±10C) and refrigeration temperature (4±10C).

The result suggested that there was increasing sensorial score with respect to the colour and appearance, body and texture and flavour, it had good quality effect on paneer due to the use of packaging material. The microbial examination of paneer without and with packaging material stored at room temperature was carried out with respect to Standard Plate Count (SPC), yeast and mould and coliform. The result obtained was found to be significant with regard to different temperatures.

The energy value of sample lactic acid paneer (T3) was to be observed that the 10g of lactic acid coagulant paneer provided energy of about 30.878 kcal and it was higher than other samples as it contained higher amount of fat. Finally cost of production of 150 gm of paneer was calculated i.e., Rs 57 only.

It was concluded that the results of the present finding that good quality paneer can be prepared by using lactic acid coagulant (2%). It can be concluded from comparative studies of TPA, sensory score and chemical composition of paneer with respect to hardness, cohesiveness, chewiness and springiness that these parameters were increased as the protein content increased and fat content increased. Also sensory score was to be high to the lactic acid paneer. Lactic acid should be used in preparation of paneer to replace the citric acid as coagulant. Lactic acid to give chemical and textural and sensorial high score.

(The authors are from department of food engineering, college of food technology, Vasantrao Naike Marathwada Agriculture University, Parbhani, Maharashtra. They can be contacted at
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