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EDUCATION

Management Basics of Food Service Institute
Wednesday, 02 December, 2015, 08 : 00 AM [IST]
Dr Keshav Kamaliya and Ms Neema Patel
Definition: It is the art of providing food and drink aesthetically and scientifically to a large number of people in a satisfactory and cost-effective manner.

2 Principles of Management: Some principles which form basic guidelines to manage catering operation are explained below:
2.1 Division of Work: This is an important principle. As the establishment increases in size and work, the principle of division of work becomes more important. It is divided among various outlets and also amongst the staff members to make work simpler and meaningful and avoid the clashes.
2.2 Authority and Responsibility : Every institute requires an authority or a head for the proper operation and management of the institute. The authority runs an institute through a chain of command to the fellow staff or under staff.
2.3 Discipline: It covers the punctuality, courtesy, adherence to the rules and regulations, obedience among the staff. That are essential for smooth running of the institute.
2.4 Payment: All work done must be paid in order to motivate people. An appropriate amount should be paid according to the work assigned or else disloyalty may rise amongst the staff members.
2.5 Hierarchy: It is the chain of work framed by staff placed at different levels in an organisation.
2.6 Orderliness: In this industry, orderliness in material is very important because perishables should be properly stored. For manpower, orderliness means "Right man at Right place at Right time" must be appointed.
2.7 Loyalty and Devotion: Loyalty and devotion is important amongst the staff of the institute because it creates a bond between the employee and the institute.
2.8 Work Ability: As the workload decreases the work stability can be increased because more workload can cause stress by which quality of the work decreases.
2.9 Initiative: If staff members are allowed to plan any event or conference etc. at the hotel there should be the initative or desire to work and get it completed successfully among the staff.
2.10 Unity: This principle plays a vital role because there exists many outlets or departments in the hotel which should run with co-ordination and mutual understanding, without unity it becomes very hard to run an institute.
2.11 Control: This suggests the control of the leader authority / head over the staff, without that the under staff will not work with proper responsibility.

3. Function of Management: The main functions are as follows:
3.1 Planning: It is a continuous process. For that, first of all scrutinises the past performance and then sets a goal.
Three main steps involved are:
1.Gathering information for the policies.
2.Developing a blue print of the structured plan.
3.Setting a goal or targets.
3.2 Organising: First set the goals and then convert into action / practice. The ability to establish such a workflow by proper coordination of activities allotted to staff, according to their abilities is termed as 'organising.'
3.3 Directing: It is the function that indicates actual performance of the task. It requires great interaction between people. It is done by instructing, guiding, teaching, supervising and reviewing.
3.4 Coordinating: Besides achieving goal activities of all groups must be well coordinated for efforts to become successful. Coordination is considered as binding together, unifying and harmonising all efforts.
3.5 Controlling: Control is necessary to give the right direction to activities. Constant monitoring is necessary for proper functioning of the organisation or institute.
3.6 Evaluating: This is done at the end of a project, evaluation helps in marking a  cheek if everything went through planning, if anything got missed, that can be evaluated also. When anything new is to be implemented in the next project evaluation helps to rectify the mistakes done in previous projects.
4. Tools of Management: That are the technics / materials which have been developed by the managers in the past and used as an aid to effective management. Some of such important materials are
4.1 Organisation Chart: It tells us about the subordinate-superior relationships, also if tells us about 'who' reports to 'whom.'
4.2 Job Description: It refers to the definition of a job in a precise manner indicating exactly what is to be done by particular staff member and who are or would be coming to a job position. This also can be used as a tool of management because when you want to employ someone to the institute then you must describe  the job and duties to be performed by him/her.
4.3 Job Specification: It is a statement indicating standards to be achieved for a particular job. It covers duties to be performed in detail, the working condition of the job and the qualification required.
4.4 Work Schedule: It represents the outline of the work to be done by an employee. By this tool one can know which work to be done at what time. For example, there is a conference on the next day, then work schedule would help to plan what type of work or effort is needed.
4.5 Menu Card: A menu card is a document that is used as a 'Selling tool.' It helps in creating an image in the minds of guests about the class of establishment. Thus care is essential while preparing a menu card. Its presentation and format should be appropriate, clear and easy to understand.

That should be spotlessly clean, attractive and pleasing in colours. That should be available in proper numbers at restaurants. The content of the menu card indicates the dishes available at the outlet. The dishes and the prices should be clearly indicated items which are frequently not available because of last minute changes should be deleted from the menu card.
The menus are basically of the following types: A la carte; Table d" hote; Combination of the two; and Cyclic menu.
4.5.1A la carte : This is basically a choice menu which offers choices of dishes or items to be served to the customers. The various categories would be starters, soups, main dishes, side dishes, cereal preparations, salads, desserts, sandwiches, snacks, beverages and so on. The categories may follow a sequence on the menu card, in which the customer would select.
4.5.2 Table d' hote : It means "table of the host." This is therefore a set menu in which menus are planned by the host and food is served at a set price / fixed price. A typical table d' hote menu is served in India in the form of “Thali." Similarly the “Tray meals” served in an aircraft are set menus.  
4.5.3 Combination of menu: In some establishments it is common to have a-la-carte menu with a ‘special for the day' as attachment to it.
In some establishments both types of menus are served. For instance in the lunch hour only table d' hote in the form of ‘Thali’ is served and at rest of the time A la carte menu is served.
4.5.4 Cyclic menus: In case of some hotels, homes (old age homes, orphanages etc.) menus are planned in advance for a period of time varying from a week or a month. These are then cycled or repeated at fixed interval.

(Kamaliya is principal, School of Baking, Polytechnic in Food Science and Home Economics, Faculty of Food Processing Technology and Bio-Energy, Anand Agricultural University, Anand, Gujarat. He can be contacted at kb_kamaliya@yahoo.co.in)
 
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