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OVERVIEW

Oil - An Essential Component of Human Diet
Monday, 25 March, 2013, 08 : 00 AM [IST]
J S Pangaria
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Edible oil is one of the most important and widely used processed foods. Oils are essential component of human diet. Oils gelatinize starch in cereals, pulses and vegetables and help in releasing and solubilising flavours. Oils also improve the shelf-life of food and provide it with structure and taste.

Oils act as a vehicle for and storage of vitamin “A” & “D”. It also provides essential fatty acids (linoleic and linolenic) which are very important for health and well being.

Edible Oil Business in India
India accounts for about 5 percent of World Vegetable Oil Production; 14 percent of World Vegetable Imports and 10 percent of World Edible Consumption.

With ongoing growth in population and personal income, the per capita consumption of edible oils in India has been rising steadily.

In India, a very large variety of oils are in common use & edible oil industry is characterized by regional preference and a high degree of price elasticity.

Over the years domestic production of oilseeds has not grown in line with edible oil demand. This has led to increasing import of edible oil to fulfill domestic demand.

India is one of the leading consumers of edible oils in the world. Currently, India consumes about 17 Million Tons of edible oils and consumption is growing moderately @ 3% p.a.

Out of its total requirement 17 Million Tons, our expected production is likely 7.2 Million Ton and import 10 Million Ton. (Per Capita Consumption : 13.6 Kg.).

Estimated Availability of Edible Oil: Oil Year 2012-13

Oil

Domestic Production

Import

Total

Soybean

20.50

11.00

31.50

Groundnut

01.80

--

01.80

Rapeseed / Mustard

21.10

--

21.10

Cottonseed               

10.50

--

10.50

Sunflower¨/Sesame/Safflower

03.60

10.00¨

13.60

Palm

--

79.00

79.00

Other Oils

(Rice Bran/Copra etc.)

14.30

--

14.30

Total

71.80

100.00

171.80




The dependence on the imported edible oils is expected to increase in the future due to anticipated domestic supply constraints and the high cost competitiveness of imported oils.

There is a slow and steady shift taking place towards packaged and branded oils, providing opportunities in packing solution space. The branded segment is currently small-less than 25 percent but growing at double digit rates every year, on the back of rising customer incomes.

52% of total edible oil is sold loose, 27% in consumer packs and 21% non refined (Kachi Ghani).

Surprisingly 75% of edible oil is consumed by 25% population.

Guide to cooking oil

All cooking oils are 100 percent fat – 120 calories per table spoon. All oils are cholesterol free.

Here’s some information that will allow you to make the right choices about what oils to use and how to select oil.

Cooking Oils Composition

Oil

% Saturated Fat

% Mono  Unsaturated Fat (MUFA)

% Poly Unsaturated Fat (PUFA)

Mustard

06

76

18

Canola

06

62

31

Safflower

09

12

78

Sunflower

11

20

69

Corn

13

25

62

Soybean

15

24

61

Groundnut

18

48

34

Rice Bran

19

42

38

Cottonseed

27

19

54

Palm

51

39

10

Coconut

92

06

02



Advantage Soya Oil  

When compared to the fatty acid profile of various vegetable oil like, Sunflower, Safflower, Groundnut, Mustard, Cottonseed and Coconut oils, generally consumed as Cooking oils, Soybean Oil contains a balanced fatty acid profile, lower saturated fatty acids and higher unsaturated fatty acids which includes Essential Fatty Acids, EFA 61%, specially highest content of linoleniec acid 7%, which are found to reduce blood pressure, blood cholesterol levels.

When compared the ratio of MUFA and PUFA, both are needed to control the blood cholesterol levels, Soybean contains balanced ratio with relatively higher MUFA than Safflower oil, Sunflower oil, Cotton seed oil and Coconut oil and PUFA levels more than 50%, sufficient levels required for human body.

Soybean oil contains, Linolenic acid maximum than any other oils, namely 7%, which is essential for body immune system, especially in reducing blood pressure and the Harmful LDL Cholesterol, maintaining the good HDL Cholesterol levels in blood.

Soybean oil is rich in natural tocopherol (Vitamin E) levels than in other vegetable oil.

Soybean oil due to its high content of Linolenic acid, is relatively unstable than the other oils, hence addition of antioxidant or nitrogen blanketing will be required for longer shelf life.

Traditionally consumption in a geographical segment depends upon its availability in a particular region.

Of late, things have changed. Through technological means such as refining, bleaching and deodorization all oil have been rendered practically colourless, odourless and tasteless and therefore have become essentially interchangeable in the kitchen.  All of them are essentially blend processed oil.

Advice:  Restrict the per capita consumption of all oils put together less than a litre per month to stay healthy, fit and fine.  Keep rotating/shifting to different oils to derive the health and nutrition advantage.


(The author is Executive Director,  The Soybean Processors Association of India, Indore)
 
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